Monday, May 25, 2020

Mies van der Rohe and Neo-Miesian Architecture

The United States has a love-hate relationship with Mies van der Rohe. Some say he stripped architecture of all humanity, creating cold, sterile, and unlivable environments. Others praise his work, saying he created architecture in its most pure form. Believing that less is more, Mies van der Rohe became the designer of rational, minimalist skyscrapers, houses, and furniture. Along with the Viennese architect Richard Neutra (1892–1970) and the Swiss architect  Le Corbusier  (1887–1965),  Mies van der Rohe not only set the standard for all modernist design but brought European modernism to America. Background Maria Ludwig Michael Mies was born on March 27, 1886, in Aachen, Germany. He changed his name in 1912 when he opened his own design practice in Berlin, adopting his mothers maiden name, van der Rohe. In todays world of one-name wonders, he is simply called  Mies  (pronounced  Meez  or often  Mees). Education Ludwig Mies van der Rohe began his career in his familys stone-carving business in Germany, learning about the trade from his father who was a master mason and stonecutter. When he was a teenager, he worked as a draftsman for several architects. Later, he moved to Berlin, where he found work in the offices of architect and furniture designer Bruno Paul and industrial architect Peter Behrens. Career Early in his life, Mies van der Rohe began experimenting with steel frames and glass walls, a style that would become known as International. He was the third director of the Bauhaus School of Design, after Walter Gropius and Hannes Meyer, from 1930 until it disbanded in 1933. He moved to the United States in 1937, and for 20 years (1938–1958), he was the director of architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), where he taught his students to build first with wood, then stone, and then brick before progressing to concrete and steel. He believed that architects must completely understand their materials before they can design. Although Mies was not the first architect to practice simplicity in design, he carried the ideals of rationalism and minimalism to new levels. His glass-walled Farnsworth House near Chicago stirred controversy and legal battles. His bronze and glass Seagram Building in New York City (designed in collaboration with Philip Johnson) is considered Americas first glass skyscraper. The Meis philosophy that less is more became a guiding principle for architects in the mid-20th century, and many of the worlds skyscrapers are modeled after his designs. What Is Neo-Miesian? Neo  means  new.  Miesian  refers to Mies van der Rohe. Neo-Miesian  builds upon the beliefs and approaches that Mies practiced—the less is more minimalist buildings in glass and steel. Although Miesian buildings are unornamented, they are not plain.  For example, the famous Farnsworth House combines glass walls with pristine white steel columns. Believing that God is in the details, Mies van der Rohe achieved visual richness through his meticulous and sometimes surprising choice of materials. The towering glass Seagram Building uses bronze beams to accentuate the structure. Interiors juxtapose the whiteness of stone against the swooping, fabric-like wall panels. Some critics call the 2011 Pritzker Prize-winning Portuguese architect Eduardo Souto de Moura neo-Miesian. Like Mies, Souto de Moura (born in 1952) combines simple forms with complex textures. In their citation, the Pritzker Prize jury noted that Souto de Moura has the confidence to use stone that is a thousand years old or to take inspiration from a modern detail by Mies van der Rohe. Although nobody has called Pritzker Laureate Glenn Murcutt (born in 1936) a neo-Miesian, Murcutts simple designs show a Miesian influence. Many of  Murcutts houses in Australia, like the Marika-Alderton House, are elevated on stilts and built on above-ground platforms—taking a page from the Farnsworth House playbook. The Farnsworth House was built in a floodplain, and Murcutts above-ground coastal houses are raised for protection from tidal surges. But Murcutt builds on van der Rohes design—circulating air not only cools the house but also helps keep the Australian critters from finding easy shelter. Perhaps Mies thought of that, too. Death On August 17, 1969, at the age of 83, Mies van der Rohe died of esophageal cancer at Chicago’s Wesley Memorial Hospital. He is buried in nearby Graceland Cemetery. Important Buildings Some of the more notable building designs by Meis, include: 1928-29: Barcelona Pavilion1950: The Farnsworth House, Plano, Illinois1951: Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago1956: Crown Hall, Chicago1958: Seagram Building, New York (with Philip Johnson)1959-74: Federal Center, Chicago Furniture Designs Some of the more notable furniture designs by Meis, include: 1927: Side Chair (MR 10)1929: The Barcelona ® Chair1930: Brno Flat Bar Chair1948: Mies allowed one of his protà ©gà ©s, Florence Knoll, exclusive rights to produce his furniture. Learn more from Knoll, Inc.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Conflict Theory and Conflict Between Social Classes

Conflict theory began with Karl Marx and his belief that capitalist societies are powered and controlled the conflict between social classes. Those who possessed a means of production, called the bourgeois, and and those that had to work for the bourgeois, called the proletariat. He felt that all elements of society were based around this struggle for control and for resources (Kendall 2014: 12 ). Conflict theorists believe that all humans behavior, all our social norms, all our systems of government, our employment, and our systems of education are the result of conflicts between competing groups. All of society is shaped by this great power struggle. Conflict theory depends on an unequal power balance, one group controls the other group, using their social power to keep the other group subjugated. Conflict theory has evolved past just considering class and has began to consider other competing groups. The struggles between men and women, rich and poor, whites and people of color, a nd LGBTQIA individuals and straight people are now taken into consideration by conflict theorists. Society is constantly changing because of the battles between conflicting interests (Kendall 2014: 17). Conflict perspective views mental illness as the result of stress that comes from being a member of a subjugated, low income group. Mental health is defined by the group in power and can be used as a tool for keeping the social balance tipped in their favor. For a member of one of theseShow MoreRelatedKarl Marx s Theory Of Society1450 Words   |  6 PagesKarl Marx’s Theory Karl Marx was one of the many sociologist who was trying to look at society and how it can function in a new way. Marx’s was a German social philosopher, cultural commentator, and was political activist. He developed the terms â€Å"Conflict Theory† and â€Å"Marxism†. 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On one end of the spectrum is the pluralistic view that infers that society is composed of different groups which are in a struggle for maintain their interestRead MoreThe Conflict Theory Of Society988 Words   |  4 Pages The conflict theory itself was contrived and created from the beliefs of Karl Marx, who was a firm believer that society is an existence that is always changing and is influenced by the conflict between the social and economic classes. Functionalism views society as a complicated system where all are wanting equality, but the conflict theory sees life as competition and survival of the fittest. One of the foundations of the conflict theory is that society and life are made up of people acquiringRead MoreFunctionalism And Its Impact On Society983 Words   |  4 Pagesflawless. There are conflicts of interest about the relations between the school and society. 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Every person has experienced conflict in life. The main focus of this theory is how power structures and power disparities impact people’s lives (The Catholic University of America,  2008). Conflict t heory according to CrossmanRead MoreMarx And Durkheim s Theory Of Social Inequality933 Words   |  4 PagesDurkheim can be readily applied to social inequality in the context of present day Canada. Durkheim’s theory is founded in analyzing how societies function by focusing on the ideas of the division of labour, merit and functionalism. Marx, on the other hand, views society as divided into social classes of the bourgeoisie and proletariats, while stressing the importance of the role of capital plays in society in relation to inequality. Both Marx and Durkheim’s theories of modern society can be used toRead MoreStructural Funcionalism, Conflict Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism1410 Words   |  6 Pages In this paper, I will discuss three different schools of thought that, while they may seem to explain the inner workings of society, by themselves they fail to satisfy completely. For each theory, I will discuss the basics and cover the main tenants of each. The n, I will discuss the ambiguities, inadequacies and irrelevance to reality based on our current understanding of modern society. Structural Functionalism In the Functionalist School of Thought, society is viewed as being a complex structureRead MoreSocial Conflict Theory1130 Words   |  5 Pagescan be questioned. Critical criminology is a theoretical perspective in criminology which takes a conflict perspective, such as marxism, feminism, political economy theory or critical theory. The focus of critical criminology is the genesis of crime and nature of ‘justice’ within a structure of class and status inequalities. Law and punishment of crime are viewed as connected to a system of social inequality and as the means of producing and perpetuating this inequality.[1] Critical criminology

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Game Ready Cold Therapy Compression System - 1866 Words

EBP Research Project: Game Ready ® Cold Therapy Compression System Kristen Nielson ATR 457 – Modalities Due: 11/18/2014 Table of Contents Game Ready ® Cold Therapy Compression System 3 Physiological Effects 4 Setup 6 Parameters for Application 6 Indications 7 Contraindications 7 Precautions 8 References 10 Game Ready ® Cold Therapy Compression System Game Ready ® is a modality system that employs the ice and compression components of RICE (Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation) treatment techniques for acute injuries and post-surgical patients. In addition, the machine mimics the body’s natural muscle contractions in an effort to manufacture a pump system within the body that can aid in lymphatic function. Game Ready ® addresses several therapeutic goals including edema reduction, inflammation control, secondary tissue injury limitation, and pain management ultimately resulting in range of motion (ROM) increases and faster return to function. This is done through the use of pneumatic compression that forms each cold wrap to the contours of the body for better surface contact over a greater area. As the treatment begins, cold water begins to fill the connector hose and the vapors inflate the wrap around the injured area. This is known as active cold and compression because the constant circulation of cold water vapor removes heat from the body locally at a faster rate than static cold application and the constant changes in compression work like a pump to assist theShow MoreRelatedI Had A Good Learning Experience Observing Pt And Ptas2133 Words   |  9 Pagesresidential apartments. The PT clinic was on the first floor and the apartments were on second and third floors. The PT clinic was very spacious, organized and neat. There was a small cabin in the entrance for unit clerk, a big therapy room, and two rooms for evaluations. The therapy room was quite big. 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Published by John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permissionRead MoreExploring Corporate Strategy - Case164366 Words   |  658 Pagesmajor crime? Ericsson – innovation from the periphery: the development of mobile telephone systems. Direct Care – strategy development in the multistakeholder context of public sector services. BBC – structural changes to deliver a better service. Sony (B) – more structural changes at the high-tech multinational. Web Reservations International – growth of an Irish SME company through its online reservation system and business model. 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This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions DepartmentRead More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words   |  1422 PagesRESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distrib ution, information storage and retrieval systems, or in any other manner—without the written permission of the publisher. Thomson Higher Education 10 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA For more information about our products, contact us at: Thomson Learning Academic Resource Center 1-800-423-0563

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Strategic Managementof British Airways †

Question: Discuss about the Strategic Managementof British Airways. Answer: Objective and mission statement The main objectives of British airways is to determine the fact regarding how strongly they emerge from the downturn and to create a profitable and sustainable future for the business which in turn, will benefit the stakeholders, colleagues and customers. The mission of British Airways is that one destination shall assure their customer to fly with confidence and they are responsibly working together to take care if world they are living in. their mission statement creates the mindset that the passengers will always safe on the ground or on the air and they want to make their customers feel that they are confident and safe while they are flying with British airways. Strengths and weaknesses Strengths: More than 90 years of experience in airline industry Backed up by the government of UK They has their own branch for engineering that maintains the aircraft fleet Developed the online system of ordering that makes the company tech-savvy Weaknesses: Highly dependent on the UK market and are associated with the risk of globalized economy Could not penetrated in globalized market efficiently Employee unions are strong that will increase the cost of managing the employees. Core competence They focus on providing the unique experience for the customers. Every month it conducts the market research with the customers to find out their choice and preferences. Current strategy of British airways is to upgrade the experience of customers by introducing mobile and text services for the customers of business class. Further, to capture the market position they always come up with new strategies and approaches.

Monday, April 6, 2020

School Annual Day Celebration free essay sample

?One of the most anxiously awaited occasions in any school is its annual day. Great excitement and hurried activities are visible all around. The preparations for the annual day begin much ahead of the day itself. The school gets a complete face-lift with all the classrooms thoroughly cleaned and charts on all subjects are displayed on the walls. This is done to impress the Chief Guest, other guests and parents. The venue of the function is decorated with Writings, balloons, banners and lights. Another important feature of the preparation is the regular practice session of the cultural programme to be staged on the appointed day. Students, participating in the dance, drama and music programmes are called for long rehearsals. The long-awaited day, finally, arrives and everyone seems to be immensely busy and hectic, rushing here and there for one reason or the other. All, including the principal, the teachers and the participants in the cultural programmes seem greatly excited and worried. We will write a custom essay sample on School Annual Day Celebration or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Those who are supposed to come to the stage tremble in excitement and fear. The rest of the students help to arrange the stage and look forward to a day of fun and frolic. As the Chief Guest arrives, the school-band springs into tune. He is escorted by a reception-committee, including the members from the Managing Committee, the principal, teachers and students. To start with, the principal delivers a speech, in which she first welcomes the Chief Guest and then details the highlights of the school-results in the Board’s Examinations and the awards that the students have won in various activities. Then the Chief Guest is requested to deliver his speech. It is followed by a speech from the Head-Boy. Finally, the Chief Guest is requested to give away the prizes to the students. The cultural programme begins after the prizes have been awarded. Songs are sung by the students, the dance and drama items are presented and one can see the hard work, the students have put in during their rehearsals. The last to come is the National Anthem, at the tune of which, all those who are present stand in attention. Then there is a controlled movement towards the exit. Parents wait outside for their children. Those who have won prizes and those who have performed on the stage are lovingly received by their parents. Finally, everybody goes home, bidding adieu to each other.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Definition of Literacy Test

Definition of Literacy Test   A literacy test measures a person’s proficiency in reading and writing. Beginning in the 19th century, literacy tests were used in the voter registration process in southern states of the U.S. with the intent to disenfranchise black voters. In 1917, with the passing of the Immigration Act, literacy tests were also included in the U.S. immigration process, and are still used today. Historically, literacy tests have served to legitimize racial and ethnic marginalization in the U.S. HISTORY OF RECONSTRUCTION AND JIM CROW ERA Literacy tests were introduced into the voting process in the South with the Jim Crow laws. Jim Crow laws were state and local laws and statutes enacted by southern and border states in the late 1870s to deny African Americans the right to vote in the South following Reconstruction (1865-1877). They were designed to keep whites and blacks segregated, to disenfranchise black voters, and to keep blacks subjugated, undermining the 14th and 15th Amendments of the United States Constitution. Despite the ratification of the 14th Amendment in 1868, granting citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States which included former slaves, and the ratification of the 15th Amendment in 1870, which specifically gave African Americans the right to vote, Southern and Border states continued to find ways to keep racial minorities from voting. They used electoral fraud and violence to intimidate African American voters, and created Jim Crow laws to promote racial segregation. During the twenty years following Reconstruction, African Americans lost many of the legal rights that had been gained during Reconstruction. Even the Supreme Court of the United States â€Å"helped undermine the Constitutional protections of blacks with the infamous Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) case, which legitimized Jim Crow laws and the Jim Crow way of life.† In this case, the Supreme Court maintained that public facilities for blacks and whites could be â€Å"separate but equal.† Following this decision, it soon became the law throughout the South that public facilities had to be separate. Many of the changes made during Reconstruction proved to be short-lived, with the Supreme Court continuing to uphold racial discrimination and segregation in its decisions, thus giving southern states free reign to impose literacy tests and all manner of voting restrictions on prospective voters, discriminating against black voters. But racism was not just recurring in the South. Although the Jim Crow Laws were a Southern phenomenon, the sentiment behind them was a national one. There was a resurgence of racism in the North as well and â€Å" emerging national, indeed international, consensus (among whites at any rate) that Reconstruction had been a serious mistake. LITERACY TESTS AND VOTING RIGHTS Some states, such as Connecticut, used literacy tests in the mid-1800s to keep Irish immigrants from voting, but Southern states didn’t use literacy tests until after Reconstruction in 1890, sanctioned by the federal government, where they were used well into the 1960s. They were used ostensibly to test the voters ability to read and write, but in reality to discriminate against African American voters and sometimes poor whites. Since 40-60% of blacks were illiterate, compared to 8-18% of whites, these tests had a large differential racial impact. Southern states also imposed other standards, all of which were arbitrarily set by the test administrator. Those who were property owners or whose grandfathers had been able to vote   (â€Å"grandfather clause†),   those deemed to have â€Å"good character,† or those who paid poll taxes were able to vote. Because of these impossible standards, â€Å"in 1896, Louisiana had 130,334 registered black voters. Eight years later, only 1,342, 1 percent, could pass the state’s new rules.†Ã‚  Even in areas where the black population was substantially greater, these standards kept the white voting population in the majority. The administration of literacy tests was unfair and discriminatory. â€Å"If the official wanted a person to pass, he could ask the easiest question on the test- for example, Who is the president of the United States?† The same official might require a black person to answer every single question correctly, in an unrealistic amount of time, in order to pass.†Ã‚  It was up to the test administrator whether the prospective voter passed or failed, and even if a black man was well-educated, he would most likely fail, because â€Å"the test was created with failure as a goal.† Even if a potential black voter knew all the answers to the questions, the official administering the test could still fail him. Literacy tests were not declared unconstitutional in the South until ninety-five years after the15th Amendment was ratified, by the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Five years later, in 1970, Congress abolished literacy tests and discriminatory voting practices nationwide, and as a result, the number of registered African American voters increased dramatically. ACTUAL LITERACY TESTS In 2014 a group of Harvard University students was asked to take the 1964 Louisiana Literacy Test to raise awareness about voting discrimination.   The test is similar to those given in other Southern states since Reconstruction to potential voters who could not prove they had a fifth grade education. In order to be able to vote, a person had to pass all 30 questions in 10 minutes. All of the students failed under those conditions, because the test was meant to be failed. The questions have nothing at all to do with the U.S. Constitution and are completely nonsensical. You can try the test yourself here.    LITERACY TESTS AND IMMIGRATION In the late 19th century many people wanted to restrict the influx of immigrants to the U.S. due to increased problems of urbanization and industrialization such as crowding, lack of housing and jobs, and urban squalor. It was during this time that the idea of using literacy tests to control the number of immigrants able to enter the United States, particularly those from southern and eastern Europe, was formed. However, it took those who advocated for this approach many years to try to convince lawmakers and others that immigrants were the â€Å"cause† of many of America’s social and economic maladies. Finally, in 1917, Congress passed the Immigration Act, also known as the Literacy Act (and Asiatic Barred Zone Act), which included a literacy test that is still a requirement for becoming a U.S. citizen today. The Immigration Act demanded that those who were over the age of 16 and could read some language must read 30-40 words to show they were capable of reading. Those who were entering the U.S. to avoid religious persecution from their country of origin did not have to pass this test. The literacy test that is part of the Immigration Act of 1917 included only a few languages available to immigrants. This meant that if their native language was not included, they could not prove they were literate, and were denied entry. Beginning in 1950, immigrants could legally only take the literacy test in English, further limiting those who could gain entry to the United States. Besides demonstrating the ability to read, write, and speak English, immigrants also have to display knowledge of U.S. history, government, and civics. English literacy tests have effectively been used in the U.S. as a means to keep immigrants   that the government deemed unwanted out of the country, for the tests are demanding and rigorous.   Would you be able to pass them? REFERENCES 1.Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, Ferris State University, 2.Foner, Eric., The Supreme Court and the History of Reconstruction and Vice-VersaColumbia Law Review, November 2012, 3.4. Techniques of Direct Disenfranchisement 1880-1965,   University of Michigan, 4. Constitutional Rights Foundation, A Brief History of Jim Crow, 5. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, PBS, 6. Ibid. 7. RESOURCES AND FURTHER READING Alabama Literacy Test, 1965, Constitutional Rights Foundation, A Brief History of Jim Crow, Foner, Eric, The Supreme Court and the History of Reconstruction and Vice-Versa Columbia Law Review, November 2012, Head, Tom, 10 Racist US Supreme Court Rulings, ThoughtCo., March 03, 2017, Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia, Ferris State University, Onion, Rebecca, Take the Impossible â€Å"Literacy† Test Louisiana Gave Black Voters in the 1960s, PBS, The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow, Schwartz, Jeff, CORE’s Freedom Summer, 1964 - My Experiences in Louisiana, Weisberger, Mindy, Immigration Act of 1917 Turns 100: Americas Long History of Immigration Prejudice, LiveScience, Feb. 5, 2017,

Friday, February 21, 2020

Marketing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Marketing - Assignment Example The spa will offer massage in different variety of styles including traditional massage, deep tissue work, hot stone massage, pregnancy, reflexology, sports and others. (Bplans, 2010). Treatments on body and face using the best products such as Pevonia’s Anti Free Radical Treatment a...... Turnover will be a major consideration in formulating which marketing strategies to be used. Their type and their numbers are also equally important so as to bring a variety of the products to fit in the various types of customers. It will target potential clients both male and female within ten mile radius within our location at a busy plaza in the city. Both individual employees/self employed and non employed employees are also placed in the plan. In order to acquire clients, the spas will implement a very aggressive marketing and networking in the business community through advertising in the media and going to the business premises to carry out presentations, followed by offering the best services in the health spa business. Skilled therapists and trainers include the personnel. Their prices are also competitive in the area so will give a better financial advantage. Pricing approach includes; penetration pricing, promotional pricing and premium pricing. Penetration pricing is nor mally put first and includes setting the prices very low to gain market share. Promotional pricing comes in order to enable the business to buy for long term. Premium pricing will be used lastly which involves setting a very high price of the unique product to gain competitive advantage from the other competitors in the market. Social sites like face book, twitter, you\tube will be of great marketing help, and also in the company’s website. Sales promotion using short term incentives to encourage business to respond and undertake some activity and personal contact between Bodywise Health spa and prospective business clients through face to face meetings and tele-marketing will help maintain they spas competitive edge. The success of the business is